“It is interesting to contemplate a tangled bank, clothed with many plants of many kinds, with birds singing on the bushes, with various insects flitting about, and with worms crawling through the damp earth, and to reflect that these elaborately constructed forms, so different from each other, and dependent upon each other in so complex a manner, have all been produced by laws acting around us.” (Darwin 1859)
|Some of what we hope to understand.|
Eco-evolutionary studies with real organisms could proceed in the laboratory or in nature. Advantages of the laboratory are manifold: populations can be genetically manipulated, environments can be carefully controlled, replicates and controls can be numerous, and small organisms with very short generation times (e.g., microbes) allow the long-term tracking of dynamics (Bell 2008, Kassen 2014). These properties dictate that eco-evolutionary studies in the laboratory are elegant and informative, yet only in a limited sense. That is, such studies tell us what happens when we impose a particular artificial environment on a particular artificial population and, hence, they cannot tell us what will actually happen for real populations in nature. Understanding eco-evolutionary dynamics as they play out in the natural world instead requires the study of natural populations in natural environments. I will therefore focus to the extent possible on natural contexts, although I certainly refer to laboratory studies when necessary.
|Is this place to do it?|
The populations not exposed to parasites (LL, UL, T, C) are now MORE resistant to the parasite than is the ancestral population (S) that remains exposed to parasites.